Kamis, 29 April 2010

TENSES

SIMPLE PRESENT
Pola I S + V1 (kata kerja)
Pola II S + to be + selain kata kerja
(am/is/are)
Ciri: every…, frequency of adverbial(usually, always, never, sometimes, seldom,dll)
Example:
1. She always writes a letter.
2. She is angry everyday.
Notice: menyatakan sesuatu yang pasti.

PRESENT CONTINOUS
Present continous sering disebut juga present progressive.
Pola: S + to be + V-ing
(am/is/are)
Ciri: today, this…(this week/month/day/etc) tapi tidak this morning (ciri dari past tense)
Example: She is writing a letter this week.

SIMPLE PAST
Pola I S + V2 (kata kerja)
Pola II S + to be + selain kata kerja
(was/were)
Ciri: this morning (pagi tadi), yesterday, ago, last….(last week/last month/etc).
Example:
1. She wrote a letter two days ago.
2. She was angry yesterday.
Notice:
Jawaban dari pertanyaan yang ada did atau was/were tapi tidak ada durasi/lama waktunya, maka bentuk past tense yang dipilih.

PAST CONTINOUS
Past continous sering disebut juga past progressive.

Pola: S + to be + V-ing + when + past tense
(was/were) while + past continous
Ciri: when, while, this…..
Example:
1. She was writing a letter when he came.
2. She was writing a letter while he was washing his car.
Notice:
Bentuk past continous tidak bisa berdiri sendiri, pasti ada dua kalimat atau lebih. Jika hanya satu kalimat, jangan pernah memilih bentuk past continous.
Kalau ada when, pasti pasangan kalimat dalam bentuk past tense.
Kalau ada while, pasti pasangan kalimat dalam bentuk past continous.

PRESENT PERFECT
Pola I S + has/have + V3 (kata kerja)
Pola II S + has/have + to be + selain kata kerja
(been)
Ciri: for, since (ada durasi waktu), all this year/month/etc, up to now, so far, already
Example:
1. She has written a letter for two hours.
2. She has been angry for two hours.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS
Pola: S + has/have + to be + V-ing
(been)
Ciri: semua ciri present perfect kecuali already
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
Notice:
Persamaan persent perfect dengan present perfect continous
Menyatakan durasi (lama waktu) kejadian
Perbedaan present perfect dan present perfect continous
She has written a letter for two hours (dia telah selesai menulis surat selama dua jam).
She has been writing for two hours (dia telah menulis surat selama dua jam dan sekarang masih menulis surat).

PAST PERFECT
Pola I S + had + V3 (kata kerja) + before/after + past tense
Pola II S + had + to be + selain kata kerja + before/after + past tense
(been)
Ciri: before, after, ada dua kejadian yang berurutan
Example:
1. She had written for two hours before I came.
2. She had been angry for two hours before I came.

PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS
Pola: S + had + to be + V-ing + before/after + past tense
(been)
Ciri: before, after, dua kejadian yang berurutan
Example: She had been writing for two hours before I came.

Notice:
Persamaan past perfect dan past perfect continous
Menjelaskan kejadian yang telah terjadi sebelum kejadian yang lainnya berlangsung.
Setelah after/before pasti bentuk past tense

Perbedaan past perfect dan past perfect continous
She had written a letter for two hours before I came (dia telah selesai menulis surat selama dua jam sebelum saya datang ).
She had been writing for two hours before I came (dia telah menulis surat selama dua jam sebelum saya datang dan kemudian masih melanjutkan menulis surat setelah saya datang).

SIMPLE FUTURE
Pola I S + will + V1 (kata kerja)
(am/is/are + going to)
Pola II S + will + be + selain kata kerja
(am/is/are + going to)
Ciri: soon, tomorrow, tonight, next…(day/month/week/etc)
Example:
1. She will write a letter tomorrow.
2. She will be angry tomorrow
Notice:
Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan dilakukan di masa datang

FUTURE CONTINOUS
Pola: S + will + be + V1-ing + when + simple present
Ciri: sama dengan simple future ditambah keterangan waktu tertentu untuk (this time next year, at ten tomorrow)
Example: She will be writing a letter at ten tomorrow when I comes.
Notice:
Menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang dilakukan di masa datang ketika peristiwa lain terjadi.

FUTURE PERFECT
Pola I: S + will + have + V3 (kata kerja) + when + simple present
before/after
by this time
Pola II: S + will + have + to be + selain kata kerja + when + simple present
(been) before/after
by this time
Ciri: sama dengan simple future, for…(a day/a month/a week/etc), by the end of…
Example:
1. She will have written a letter for two hours before I come
2. She will have been angry for two hours before I come.
Notice:
Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan telah selesai dilakukan dalam durasi tertentu di masa datang ketika peristiwa lain terjadi.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS
Pola: S + will + have + been + V1-ing + when + simple present
before/after
by this time
Ciri: sama dengan simple future, for…(a day/a month/a week/etc), by the end of…
Example: She will have been writing for two hours before I come
Notice:
Menyatakan peristiwa telah selesai dilakukan dalam durasi tertentu di masa datang dan terus berlanjut ketika peristiwa lain terjadi.

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